Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code

In 2021, The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology notified the new Information Technology Rules, 20211 (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) under Section 87 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (“IT Act”) and in supersession of the Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines) Rules, 2011.

As per Section 2(1)(w) of the IT Act, an “Intermediary” concerning any particular electronic records means any person who, on behalf of another person, receives, stores, or transmits that record or provides any service for that record and includes:

  • Telecom service providers.
  • Network service providers.
  • Internet service providers.
  • Web-hosting service providers.
  • Search engines.
  • Online payment sites.
  • Online-auction sites.
  • Online-market places.
  • Cybercafes. 

As per Rule 2(1)(w) of the Intermediary Rules, a “social media intermediary” means an intermediary which primarily or solely enables online interaction between two or more users and allows them to create, upload, share, disseminate, modify or access information using its services.

As per the Intermediary Rules, vide notification dated 25th February 2021, a social media intermediary with fifty lakh registered users in India or above specified as threshold notified by the Central Government shall be considered a significant social media intermediary. 

Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 Required Compliances

Under Rule 3, an Intermediary is required to comply with the following requirements, which are binding on an intermediary in India:

  • 1.1.Publish on its website, mobile-based application, or both, as the case may be, the rules and regulations, privacy policy, and user agreement for access or usage of its computer resource by any person. 
  • 1.2.The rules and regulations, privacy policy, or user agreement of the intermediary shall inform the user of its computer resource not to host, display, upload, modify, publish, transmit, store, update or share any information that—
    • belongs to another person and to which the user does not have any right;
    • is defamatory, obscene, pornographic, pedophilic, invasive of another‘s privacy, including bodily privacy, insulting or harassing on the basis of gender, libelous, racially or ethnically objectionable, relating, or encouraging money laundering or gambling, or otherwise inconsistent with or contrary to the laws in force;
    • is harmful to a child;
    • infringes any patent, trademark, copyright, or other proprietary rights;
    • violates any law for the time being in force;
    • deceives or misleads the addressee about the origin of the message or knowingly and intentionally communicates any information which is patently false or misleading in nature but may reasonably be perceived as a fact;
    • impersonates another person; 
    • threatens the unity, integrity, defence, security or sovereignty of India, friendly relations with foreign states, or public order, or causes incitement to the commission of any cognisable offence or prevents investigation of any offence or is insulting other nation;
    • contains a software virus or any other computer code, file, or program designed to interrupt, destroy or limit the functionality of any computer resource;
    • is patently false and untrue, and is written or published in any form, with the intent to mislead or harass a person, entity, or agency for financial gain or to cause any injury to any person;
  • 1.3. Shall periodically inform its users, at least once every year, that in case of non-compliance with rules and regulations, privacy policy, or user agreement for access or usage of the computer resource of such intermediary, it has the right to terminate the access or usage rights of the users to the computer resource immediately or remove non-compliant information or both, as the case may be.
  • 1.4. An intermediary, on whose computer resource the information is stored, hosted, or published, upon receiving actual knowledge in the form of an order by a court of competent jurisdiction or on being notified by the Appropriate Government or its agency under clause (b) of sub-section (3) of section 79 of the Act,
    • shall not host, store or publish any unlawful information, which is prohibited under any law for the time being in force in relation to the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India; 
    • security of the State;
    • friendly relations with foreign States; public order; 
    • decency or morality; contempt of court; 
    • defamation; incitement to an offence relating to the above, or any information which is prohibited under any law for the time being in force, and shall remove or disable access to that information, as early as possible, but in no case later than thirty-six hours from the receipt of the court order or on being notified by the Appropriate Government or its agency. 
  • 1.5. Shall periodically, and at least once a year, inform its users of its rules and regulations, privacy policy or user agreement, or any change in the rules and regulations, privacy policy, or user agreement.
  • 1.6.Any information which has been removed or access to which has been disabled, the intermediary shall, without vitiating the evidence in any manner, preserve such information and associated records for one hundred and eighty days for investigation purposes, or for such longer period as may be required by the court or by Government agencies who are lawfully authorized.
  • 1.7.Where an intermediary collects information from a user for registration on the computer resource, it shall retain his information for a period of one hundred and eighty days after any cancellation or withdrawal of his registration.
  • 1.8.The intermediary shall, as soon as possible, but no later than seventy-two hours of the receipt of an order, provide information under its control or possession, or assistance to the Government agency which is lawfully authorized for investigative or protective or cyber security activities, for the purposes of verification of identity, or for the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution, of offences under any law for the time being in force, or for cyber security incidents.
  • 1.9.The intermediary shall not knowingly deploy or install or modify the technical configuration of a computer resource or become party to any act that may change or has the potential to change the normal course of operation of the computer resource than what it is supposed to perform thereby circumventing any law for the time being in force.
  • 1.10. The intermediary shall report cyber security incidents and share related information with the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team in accordance with the policies and procedures as mentioned in the Information Technology (The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team and Manner of Performing Functions and Duties) Rules, 20133. 
  • 1.11. The intermediary shall prominently publish on its website, mobile-based application, or both, as the case may be, the name of the Grievance Officer and his contact details as well as the mechanism by which a user or a victim may make a complaint against violation of the provisions of this rule or any other matters pertaining to the computer resources made available by it, and the Grievance Officer shall
    • (i) acknowledge the complaint within twenty-four hours and dispose of such complaint within a period of fifteen days from the date of its receipt;
    • (ii) receive and acknowledge any order, notice, or direction issued by the Appropriate Government, any competent authority, or a court of competent jurisdiction.
  • 1.12. The intermediary shall, within twenty-four hours from the receipt of a complaint made by an individual or any person on his behalf, in relation to any content which is prima facie in the nature of any material which exposes the private area of such individual, shows such individual in full or partial nudity or shows or depicts such individual in any sexual act or conduct, or is in the nature of impersonation in an electronic form, including artificially morphed images of such individual, take all reasonable and practicable measures to remove or disable access to such content which is hosted, stored, published or transmitted by it. The intermediary shall implement a mechanism for the receipt of aforesaid complaints which may enable the individual or person to provide details, as may be necessary, in relation to such content or communication link.


In case, an intermediary qualifies as a social media intermediary as per the definition given under the Intermediary Rules and has more than 50 lakh users, then such intermediary has to comply with the additional compliances as provided under Rule 4 of the Intermediary Rules. 


In addition to the above compliances, an intermediary in relation to news and current affairs content shall publish, on an appropriate place on its website, mobile-based application, or both, as the case may be,

  • a clear and concise statement informing publishers of news and current affairs content that in addition to the common terms of service for all users,
  • such publishers shall furnish the details of their user accounts on the services of such intermediary to the Ministry about the details of its entity by furnishing information along with such documents as may be specified, for the purpose of enabling communication and coordination within a period of thirty days
  • and shall publish periodic compliance reports every month mentioning the details of grievances received and action taken thereon. 


As per Rule 2(1)(i) of the Intermediary Rules “digital media‘ means digitized content that can be transmitted over the internet or computer networks and includes content received, stored, transmitted, edited, or processed by- 

(i) an intermediary; or
(ii) a publisher of news and current affairs content or a publisher of online curated content;
(iii) Under part III of the Intermediary Rules, additional rules have been framed specifically for publishers of news and current affairs content and publishers of online curated content and such entities shall be administered by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.


Where an intermediary fails to observe these rules, the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 79 of the IT Act (safe harbor immunity for an intermediary) shall not be applicable to such intermediary and the intermediary shall be liable for punishment under any law for the time being in force including the provisions of the IT Act and the Indian Penal Code, 1860. 

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Ananova is the trusted source anyone can go to for thorough, current, and honest reviews so they can make the most educated decisions and investments possible when choosing a web hosting provider.

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VPS Hosting Provider’s List on

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  • Inmotionhosting
  • GreenGeeks
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Web Hosting Business Growth

From a Google search, it is revealed that there are over 330,000 web hosting providers worldwide. GoDaddy holds nearly 20% of the market, followed by Amazon AWS, 1&1, and Hostgator. Market Watch forecasted that the global web hosting market would grow to USD 154 billion by 2022 and is projected to reach $183.05 billion by 2027. In 2019 it was valued at $57.46. It represents a capital-adjusted growth rate (CAGR) of around 16 percent from 2016 to 2022 and 15.2% from 2020 to 2027.

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Creating Confidence in a Web Hosting Company

A hosting company provides online services that enable customers to publish websites or web applications on the Internet. A customer rent space on a physical server to store file and data necessary for its website. A hosting consumer considers and evaluates the following factors essential in a web hosting company that significantly impacts Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

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  • Web Hosting Environment: an HTTP web server to display website content through storing, processing, and delivering webpages to users, SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), used for email, file transfer, and storage.

CloudLinux Review on Ananova

CloudLinux is the maker of the leading operating system for hosting providers. The company’s mission is to make Linux secure, stable, and profitable. It combines in-depth technical knowledge of hosting, kernel development, and open source with unique client care expertise. 


CloudLinux has more than 4,000 customers and partners, including A2hosting, LiquidWeb and Dell, and more than 200,000 product installations.

CloudLinux releases the Resource Allocation Controls – Reseller Limits for web hosting Resellers for Plesk. The feature allows resellers to manage and control end-user resource usage inside the Plesk Control panel. Its proprietary Lightweight Virtual Environment (LVE) technology limits the number of resources each reseller can operate, including CPU, IO, memory, number of processes, and concurrent connections per end-user. Thus, it helps to boost revenues and improve the stability of servers. The technology prevents end-users from bringing down the server by allowing web hosts to set up individual resource limits and ensures users can never use more resources than was allocated to them.

To learn more, customers can watch the CloudLinux Academy webinar on LVE Manager Reseller Limits

Igor Seletskiy, CloudLinux’s chief executive officer and founder, said: “The Reseller Limits feature in CloudLinux OS was one of the most anticipated enhancements released 5 months ago, and now customers of Plesk can fully take advantage of it. It allows hosting providers to offer more valuable services to their resellers. It empowers resellers to expand their offering to their end-users, adjust their pricing models, and optimize space usage.”

For more review and information on Ananova, visit

Best Discount Offering Web Hosting Companies

The hosting providers promote their existing and new plans with attractive discounts, valuable extras, and high customer satisfaction. These deals offer a win-win situation for both, and it brings happiness to web admin on special days.


Web admins obtain a 300% wind-powered hosting service with an all-in-one web hosting plan. It gives them access to a domain name for life, SEO tools, CloudFlare CDN, cPanel, and SSDs. For customers’ peace of mind, GreenGeeks allows refunding at any time.

InMotion Hosting

The provider is known for fast-speed shared hosting plans. Its hosting includes SSDs, site transfer, and data backups. In addition, there is a 90-day refund guarantee for all users.


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Its basic shared hosting plan is the lowest hosting fee covers server resources, management tools, marketing credits, site builders, a domain name, and around-the-clock technical support.

Hostpapa purchased Add2Net Inc. web hosting brands

Hostpapa, based in Burlington, Ontario, Canada, is a web & cloud-based service provider of a complete array of enterprise-grade solutions to small businesses across the globe. The company offers a one-stop-shop, making it quick and easy for customers to select the services they need to grow their business. The high-quality services fulfill the unique needs of the industry. It provides 24×7 award-winning multi-lingual customer support by the PapaSquad team of experts.

Hostpapa purchased Add2Net Inc. web hosting brands that include Lunarpages, PacificHost, Santa Barbara Web Hosting, and E-Solutions in September 2019 for an undisclosed sum through a definitive agreement. According to Jamie Opalchuk, CEO of the company, the acquisition will strengthen the company’s position in the United States.

Hosting Review virtono

The company offers robust, reliable, and affordable web hosting solutions in multiple data centers worldwide.

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The company provides 24×7 Formidable Support and claims a 100% uptime guarantee on its nodes and network. The company constantly monitors its nodes to ensure all services are up.

Web Hosting Business Management

Who doesn’t want to earn a lucrative income? Everybody! Most IT professionals, designers, developers, SEO professionals run their web hosting as an additional business with the core business. They provide hosting services without much effort to search customers, create a business plan, deal with queries, do marketing; they already have customers. They build websites, online applications, e-commerce platforms, and blogs for their customers, and with that, they provide the required hosting services. Thus, providing all the service benefits from their end. Being technical, they know web hosting technology, creating email accounts, viewing logs, and much more. Also, able to solve most of their customer problems. It helps build strong bonds and relationships, and the customer feels better as the customer already knows them. Selling hosting services with their core business allows them to achieve the best results.

Running a business need skills, and success comes with better technology, management, and productivity, and thus leads to growth, success, and wealth. A subscription-based hosting business continuously grows with new customers and retention of existing ones. Information energizes the hosting company; hence management applies resources, time, energy, technology, money, and people to gain it. Most hosting companies do a lot of research and release reports to succeed. They focus on gathering, analyzing, and utilizing the information. A lot of brainstorming sessions between management, researchers, and the technical staff periodically to figure out the solutions for the problems before the customer knows about them. Both quality and quantity of information matter, and it’s the skill of researchers to extract value from it.

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